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Charles Long
Charles Long

Ester __EXCLUSIVE__



The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) identifies the most serious hazardous waste sites in the nation. These sites are then placed on the National Priorities List (NPL) and are targeted for long-term federal clean-up activities. Phosphate ester flame retardants have been found in at least 8 of the 1,699 current or former NPL sites. Although the total number of NPL sites evaluated for these substances is not known, the possibility exists that the number of sites at which phosphate ester flame retardants are found may increase in the future as more sites are evaluated. This information is important because these sites may be sources of exposure and exposure to these substances may be harmful.




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If you are exposed to phosphate ester flame retardants, many factors will determine whether you will be harmed. These factors include the dose (how much), the duration (how long), and how you come in contact with them. You must also consider any other chemicals you are exposed to and your age, sex, diet, family traits, lifestyle, and state of health.


There is no specific information available for the eight phosphate ester flame retardants discussed in this document; however, in general, these compounds are degraded by chemical reactions in the air. If they attach themselves to particles, they can settle out onto the ground.


Generally, most phosphate esters are poorly soluble in water and adsorb strongly to soils. These compounds are commonly detected in water due to their widespread use in commercial products. Phosphate esters are subject to biodegradation in aquatic and terrestrial environments.


Human breast milk: No studies have been conducted to determine whether phosphate ester flame retardants can be detected in human breast milk from women exposed at work or from the general population.


Phosphate ester flame retardants can be measured in blood and urine, but this is not a routine test that can be performed in a doctor's office. You should, however, see a physician if you believe that you have been exposed to high levels of these substances. No studies have been conducted to measure these chemicals in blood samples from groups of people representative of the U.S. general population.


Phosphate ester flame retardants are composed of a group of chemicals with similar properties but slightly different structures. Phosphate esters are typically liquids at room temperature; however, some are solids.


Phosphate ester flame retardants can change chemical composition in the environment. There is no specific information available for these phosphate ester flame retardants; however, in general, these compounds are degraded by chemical reactions in the air. If they attach themselves to particles, they can settle out onto the ground. Generally, most phosphate esters are poorly soluble in water and adsorb strongly to soils. These compounds are commonly detected in water due to their widespread use in commercial products. Phosphate esters are subject to biodegradation in aquatic and terrestrial environments


Ingesting food contaminated with phosphate esters is the primary source of exposure. Most foods have been found to contain trace amounts of phosphate ester flame retardants due to their wide use in plastics and presence in the environment. Breathing in contaminated air, both outdoor and indoor, is a potential route of exposure. Hydraulic fluid is the primary source of phosphate esters in outdoor air. Indoor air can contain phosphate ester flame retardants from certain plastics, adhesives, foams, or electronics.


Drinking water contaminated with phosphate esters due to leaching from plastics or industrial waste water discharge is another potential exposure route. Additionally, you may be exposed if your skin comes into contact with contaminated soil. Hydraulic fluid spills or industrial waste water used for agriculture can result in the presence of phosphate esters in soil.


Studies of occupational exposure to phosphate ester flame retardants found that long-term exposure of workers to TDCP, TCP, or TPP was not associated with adverse health effects. No information was available regarding occupational exposure to other phosphate ester flame retardants.


One way to learn about the effects of phosphate ester flame retardants is to see how they affect test animals. Almost all studies in animals have administered these substances orally and generally at levels much higher than what can be expected from environmental exposures. TCEP, given to rats for 16 weeks or longer, caused brain lesions. When given for 2 years, it also caused lesions in the kidneys. TCEP also decreased the fertility of mice that were exposed for 18 weeks before mating. TnBP induced lesions in the urinary bladder of rats when given for 10 weeks or longer. Tris(2-butoxyethyl) phosphate (TBEP) caused liver lesions in rats after the rats ate food that contained TBEP for 18 weeks. A study showed that rats that ate food containing TCP for 2 years developed lesions in the ovary and adrenal gland and male mice developed liver lesions. TCP also decreased fertility in rats and mice. Rats that ate food containing TDCP for 2 years developed lesions in the kidneys and liver. The few studies that examined the effects of TPP, tri-iso-butyl phosphate (TiBP), and tris(1-chloro-2- propyl) phosphate (TCPP) in animals did not report significant adverse health effects.


There is not enough information available to determine with certainty whether or not phosphate ester flame retardants produce cancer in humans. Studies of workers employed in the manufacture of TDCP and TCP did not find significant associations between exposure and cancer. No information was available regarding the carcinogenic potential of the other phosphate esters to humans. Rats that received oral doses of TCEP for 2 years developed kidney tumors. Feeding mice a diet that contained TCEP for 18 months induced tumors in the kidney, liver, and stomach, and also induced leukemia. Long-term administration of TnBP to rats and mice induced tumors in the urinary bladder and the liver, respectively. Feeding rats with a diet that contained TDCP for 2 years produced tumors in the liver, kidneys, testes, and adrenal gland. Neither the EPA nor the Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS) has classified the carcinogenic potential of the phosphate esters discussed in this profile. The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) determined that TCEP is not classifiable as to its carcinogenicity to humans.


There are no studies that examined the health effects in children of phosphate ester flame retardants. Furthermore, there are no studies that examined the health effects of the phosphate ester flame retardants on pregnant women or on their embryo or fetus. There is no information regarding transfer of phosphate ester flame retardants to the fetus across the placenta in pregnant women. Additionally, no studies have been conducted to determine whether phosphate ester flame retardants can be detected in human breast milk from women exposed at work or from the general population.


There have been some studies done in laboratory animals on the effects of phosphate ester flame retardants in utero. In general, exposure of rodents during gestation to TCEP, TnBP, TBEP, TDCP, TPP, or TCPP did not result in adverse effects to the fetuses or newborn animals. However, continuous exposure of two generations of mice to TCEP reduced the number of male pups born alive in the third generation. A similar study with TnBP in rats found that pups born to exposed rats had lower body weight during the first weeks of life than pups born to untreated rats. Studies in rats and mice also found that exposure to TCP before and during pregnancy can increase the number of pups born dead.


In order to reduce the risk of exposure to phosphate ester flame retardants, avoid food that is generally high in phosphate ester content as indicated by the current market basket for the U.S. Total Diet study.


Additionally, avoid installation or use of materials that are known to contain phosphate ester-based flame retardants in indoor environments to minimize exposure to them via air and particulate matter.


The presence of phosphate ester flame retardants in your blood may indicate that you have been exposed to these substances and some amount entered your bloodstream. However, the presence of phosphate ester flame retardants in your blood does not necessarily indicate that adverse health effects will occur. Additional studies are needed to help to determine the health effects associated with exposure to these substances.


An azido-containing building block that can be used to derivatize primary amines with an azido group via a stable amide bond. The NHS ester reacts with primary amines at pH 7-9 forming a stable amide bond. The azide (N3) group reacts with terminal alkynes via CuAAC, strained cyclooctynes (e.g. DBCO or BCN compounds) via Cu-free click reaction or with phosphine-labeled molecules by a mechanism known as Staudinger chemistry, enabling efficient and specific conjugation of derivatized molecules in biological samples.


Ceilcote 140 Flakeline is a heavy duty, glass flake reinforced, chemically resistant vinyl ester lining for protection of steel against aggressive chemicals in immersion service. Uses Ceilcote #2 Hardener.


Ceilcote 242 Flakeline is a flake filled vinyl ester coating with excellent resistance to organic and inorganic acid solutions and many aliphatic solvents.It offers outstanding chemical resistance with quick turn around for service. Uses Ceilcote #2 Hardener.


Ceilcote 652 Lining is a trowel applied heavy duty lining that protects steel and concrete in immersion service from strong chemicals. The lining is formulated from novolac vinyl ester resin, inerts fillers and fibreglass reinforcement.It is a chemical resistant lining for most dilute inorganic acids and come concentrated acids such as hydrochloric and phosphoric. Uses Ceilcote #2 Hardener.


Ceilcote 380 Primer is a catalysed vinyl ester primer. It provides excellent bonding and adhesion for various polyester and vinyl ester linings, coatings and flooring systems, as well as for Ceilcote Hybrid Polymer systems. Uses Ceilcote #2 Hardener. 041b061a72


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